Since 2022, Russia-Ukraine geopolitical conflicts have intensified, and global energy prices have risen sharply, with international natural gas prices hitting historic highs. As the most important transitional energy source in the transition from fossil energy to non-fossil energy, the share of natural gas in primary energy has increased from 14.6% in 1965 to 24.7% in 2020. The global gas price indices showed a unilateral downward trend from 2018, bottomed out in 2020, and remained low for a long time. However, since July 2020, the global gas prices have gradually fluctuated upward, and the impact of geopolitical events made the Dutch TTF gas price even hit record highs repeatedly.
An analyst of a securities company believes that the core catalyst of this round of global gas market lies in the lack of investment in upstream oil and gas resources caused by long-term low prices. Since 2020, although the epidemic has led to a decline in demand, the decline in supply has been faster, resulting in a large inventory consumption. In 2021, demand will recover faster than supply (the supply-side is less sensitive to prices, which will be reflected in investment).
As the world's two largest gas pce powder are also expected to change significantly.
In order to overcome the technical defects in the application of polycarboxylate water-reducing agent, or to improve some or some properties of concrete (workability, slump retention, reduction of bleeding, improvement of early strength, low shrinkage, etc.), it is necessary to modify the concrete.
In practice, the commonly used modification methods include synthetic technology and compound technology. Compared with the synthetic process, the compound method has the advantages of simple operation and low cost, so it is widely used in practical applications. Polycarboxylate series compound technology, is the Polycarboxylate series water-reducing agent and other components (such as slow coagulation, defoaming, air induction, early strength, and other components) according to a certain proportion of the combination compound, in order to achieve the coordination of the superposition of each component.
Compound Polycarboxylate Superplasticizer with Early-strength Component
With the wide application of polycarboxylate superplasticizer, the requirement of concrete early strength in practical engineering is more and more prominent, so the polycarboxylate superplasticizer has been the focus of research to meet the early strength performance of concrete. Early strength polycarboxylate water reducing agent can be made by compounding early strength agent and polycarboxylate water reducing agent. Commonly used early strength agent mainly includes strong electrolyte inorganic salt early strength agent (sulfate, sulfate double salt, nitrate, nitrite, chlorine salt, etc.) and water-soluble organic compound (triethanolamine, formate, acetate, etc.) and its complex.
Through the study of MPEG Polycarboxylate superplasticizer and five kinds of early strength agent, it is found that the compatibility between sodium sulfate early strength agent and polycarboxylate superplasticizer is very poor and the early strength of cement decreases. The combination of calcium nitrate, sodium nitrite, triethanolamine and triisopropanolamine with polycarboxylate significantly decreased the fluidity retention ability of net slurry, but all of them could improve the early strength of cement, but the effect was slightly different due to the type of early strength agent, among which triethanolamine had the most obvious enhancing effect. Zhao also found through the compound study of polycarboxylate water-reducing agent and early strength agent that the compound performance of NaCl, CaCl2, NaNO2, NaNO3 and other early strength agents and polycarboxylate was good. After adding a certain amount of early strength agent, the compound system had almost no adverse effect on the fluidity and plastic energy of fresh concrete, but all of them could significantly improve the strength of concrete at each age. The mixture of Na2SO4 and Na2S2O3 reduces the fluidity and plasticity of concrete, but it also has a significant strengthening effect on concrete.
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Recently, Russia's deputy prime minister said that the number of countries buying Russian oil is increasing, including Asian countries. Russia will use the "East Siberia-Pacific" pipeline system to increase exports to Asian countries and promote the diversification of oil output.
He also said that Russian oil pce powder are expected to continue to increase in the future.
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