How can Nano materials modify plastics?
According to the latest quarterly analysis of the natural gas market released by the International Energy Agency, global natural gas consumption will decline slightly this year and increase slowly in the following years because of soaring prices and the possibility of further reductions in Russian natural gas supplies. Global natural gas use this year is expected to be 0.5% lower than the 2021 level, and global natural gas demand is expected to increase by only 140 billion cubic meters over 2021 by 2025, the report said. The annual growth in 2021 will reach 175 billion cubic meters.
At the same time, the IEA's forecast for natural gas demand growth by 2024 was 60 per cent lower than its previous forecast, mainly due to "a weak economy and a smaller energy shift from coal or oil to natural gas", the report said.
It is worth noting that the South Korean Ministry of Industry, Trade and Resources announced on the same day that it plans to increase the proportion of nuclear power in South Korea's national energy structure to more than 30% by 2030. The proportion is 27.4% in 2021. The department also announced the resumption of the construction of two nuclear reactors. According to reports, after taking office, South Korean President Yoon Sik-Yue rejected the previous government's plan to phase out nuclear power and promised to increase investment in the nuclear power industry, so as to regain South Korea's status as a major exporter of safe nuclear reactors.
In addition, the supply and prices of many international bulk aluminum oxide are still very uncertain.
On the basis of general plastics and engineering plastics, the flame retardancy, strength, impact resistance, toughness, aging resistance and antibacterial properties of plastics can be improved by filling, blending, strengthening and other methods.
Nano materials can:
1. Aging resistance of reinforced plastics
The aging of polymer materials, especially photooxidation aging, starts from the surface of materials or products, such as discoloration, pulverization, cracking, glossiness decline and so on, and then gradually goes deep into the interior. The anti-aging properties of polymers directly affect its service life and environment, especially for agricultural plastics and plastic building materials, which is not only an index that needs great attention, but also an important topic in polymer chemistry. The ultraviolet wavelength in sunlight is 200~400nm, while the ultraviolet in 280~400nm band can break the polymer molecular chain, thus making the material aging. Nano-oxides, such as nano-alumina, nano-titanium oxide, nano-silica and so on, have good absorption properties for infrared and microwave. The proper mixing of nano SiO2 and TiO2 can absorb a large amount of ultraviolet rays to prevent plastics from being damaged by sunlight, and help to prevent plastic products from cracking, discoloration and other light degradation, thus making the materials anti-aging.
2. Improve the antibacterial and anti-mildew properties of plastics
Antibacterial plastics are generally prepared by adding antimicrobial agents or antibacterial masterbatch to the resin. Because plastic molding has to go through high temperature, there are inorganic antimicrobial agents that can adapt to high temperature. Traditional antibacterial metal powders such as copper sulfate and zinc nitrate are not easy to combine directly into thermoplastics. Inorganic nano-antibacterial powder is specially treated to obtain antibacterial plastic masterbatch, which is easy to be used in plastic products and has good compatibility with plastics. It is beneficial to the dispersion of antimicrobial agents. Inorganic silver ions can be carried into nano titanium dioxide, nano-silicon aluminum oxide and other inorganic nano-materials, and the formed powder has good antibacterial properties, mixed with plastics, extruded and formed by ultraviolet irradiation to form antibacterial plastics. its antibacterial effect is formed by the slow release of antimicrobial agents, so as to achieve the antibacterial effect.
3. Improve the toughness and strength of plastics
When the second substance is added to the polymeric matrix, a composite is formed, and a more comprehensive material is obtained by compounding, which is used to improve the mechanical strength and impact strength of the material. The emergence of nanomaterials provides a new method and way for the reinforcement and toughening modification of plastics. The surface defects of small particle size dispersed phase are relatively few and there are many unpaired atoms. The ratio of surface atomic number to total atomic number of nanoparticles increases sharply with the decrease of particle size. The crystal field environment and binding energy of surface atoms are different from those of internal atoms, so they have great chemical activity. With the micronization of crystal field and the increase of active surface atoms, the surface energy is greatly increased, so it can be closely combined with polymer substrate and has good compatibility. When subjected to external force, the ion is not easy to detach from the substrate and can better transfer the external stress. At the same time, under the interaction of the stress field, there will be more microcracks and plastic deformation in the material, which can cause the substrate to yield and consume a lot of impact energy, so as to achieve the purpose of strengthening and toughening at the same time. The commonly used nano-materials are nano alumina, nano silica, nano-calcium carbonate, etc.
4. Improve the thermal conductivity of plastics
Thermal conductive plastics are a kind of plastic products with high thermal conductivity, which are generally higher than 1w/ (m. k). Thermal conductive plastics are more and more widely used because of their light weight, fast thermal conductivity, simple injection molding, low processing cost and so on. Because of its good insulation and thermal conductivity, nano-alumina is widely used in thermal conductive plastics, thermal conductive rubber, thermal construction age, thermal conductive coatings and other fields. Compared with metal filler, nano-alumina / nano-magnesia can not only improve the thermal conductivity, but also improve the insulation effect, and the mechanical properties of plastics can also be improved.
5. Improve the processability of plastics
Some polymers, such as ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) with viscosity average molecular weight of more than 150 minutes, have excellent comprehensive properties, but they are difficult to be formed and processed because of their high viscosity, which limits their popularization and application. Taking advantage of the low interlaminar friction coefficient of layered silicate sheet, the nano-rare earth / ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene composite was prepared by fully mixing UHMWPE with layered silicate, which can effectively reduce the entanglement of UHMWPE molecular chain and reduce the viscosity. Play a good role in lubrication, thus greatly improving its processability.
6. The addition of nanomaterials makes plastics functional.
Metal nanoparticles have heterogeneous nucleation, which can induce the formation of some crystal forms that give toughness to the materials. When polypropylene is filled with low melting point metal nanoparticles, it is found that it can play the role of conductive channel, strengthening and toughening in polypropylene, and its low melting point also improves the processability of the composites.
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The EU’s draft REPowerEU plan calls for an increase of 15TWh of rooftop PV capacity by 2022. The draft also calls for EU and national governments to take action this year to reduce the time required to obtain permits for rooftop PV installations to three months, and proposes that "all new buildings and existing buildings with an energy grade OF D or above should have rooftop PV installations by 2025".
In addition, the European Commission is likely to set a target for installed PV capacity of 300GW by 2025 and 500GW by 2030. Some members are more aggressive, with Austria, Belgium, Lithuania, Luxembourg, and Spain demanding a 1TW target for 2030.
The REPowerEU initiative, worth 195 billion euros, was proposed by the EU on March 8 to phase out member states' dependence on Russian fossil fuels by 2030. In a few days, the European Commission will present a package to implement the RePowerEU strategy.
As an important application scenario of distributed PV, rooftop PV is not limited to land, and the development conditions are relatively convenient.
Since the end of 2021, Spain, France, the Netherlands, and other countries have introduced policies and measures such as government subsidies, tax cuts, fee reductions, and accelerated grid-connection approval to encourage the development of distributed PV. Europe's potential for rooftop PV is huge and will continue to be an important growth pole for the industry, according to Wood Mackenzie.
Luoyang Tongrun Nano Technology is a trusted chemical supplier and manufacturer providing high-quality chemicals and Nanomaterials. If you are looking for the aluminum oxide, please feel free to contact us and send an inquiry.