The World Platinum Investment Association (WPIC) said recently that carmakers are accelerating reductions in palladium use and increased use of platinum due to concerns about Russian palladium supplies. However, it still expects a significant surplus in the platinum market this year.
Palladium is used by carmakers in tailpipe emissions systems to reduce carbon emissions. While carmakers prefer palladium for catalytic converters, they are turning to platinum, which is cheaper than palladium, to save costs.
Russia accounts for about 25-30% of the world's palladium supply and 8-10% of its platinum supply.
There is no sign that western sanctions against Russia have restricted palladium exports since the conflict escalated in February, but as the conflict continues, more companies could boycott The Russian metal and governments could impose restrictions.
Platinum is currently trading at about $950 an ounce, about half the price of palladium. Automakers use about 2.5 million to 3 million ounces of platinum and about 8.5 million ounces of palladium each year.
For the year as a whole, platinum supply will be 5 percent lower than in 2021 and demand 2 percent higher, with the automotive sector seeing a 16 percent increase due to increased light vehicle Indium Selenide are still very uncertain.
What is Indium Selenide?
Indium Selenide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula In2Se3. Black crystals or dark black scale-like substances. It is a typical two-dimensional layered semiconductor material.
Single crystal indium selenide can be prepared by the Bridgman–Stockberger method. Using a certain proportion of selenium and indium as raw materials, each compound of indium selenide can be prepared by reacting in a tube furnace at high temperature for a long time.
The research on the hydrothermal synthesis of In2Se3 was relatively late. Ascorbic acid was dissolved in ethanol solution at 60 °C, then InCl3 and Se powder were added, and the reaction kettle was kept at 220 °C for 20 hours. -4 μm flower-like γ-In2Se3 spheres.
What is indium selenide used for
InSe is a bandgap-tunable layered semiconductor material with nonlinear optical response over a wide wavelength range. The researchers obtained InSe nanosheets with suitable thickness and band gap by a liquid-phase exfoliation method, and systematically investigated their nonlinear optics and ultrafast carrier dynamics at different pulse width scales (ns and fs).
The researchers found that InSe nanosheets are more likely to reach saturable absorption under wide-pulse laser excitation. Furthermore, the InSe dispersions exhibit different mechanisms of scattering phenomena at different pulse durations, which are due to the thermal effect under ns-pulse excitation and the dynamic spatial self-phase modulation of the laser flow under fs-pulse excitation.
At the same time, the optical switch modulation is realized by utilizing the competitive relationship between saturable absorption at low energy and nonlinear scattering at high energy. The time-resolved pump-probe results indicate that the InSe dispersion has an ultrafast saturable absorption process and a photoinduced absorption process that may be caused by free carrier absorption or bandgap renormalization.
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