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Silicon Nitride structures and properties

Crystal structure of Silicon Nitride
Si3N4 has two type of crystal framework: α& alpha;- Si3N4 is granular crystal and also β& beta; -Si3N4 is needle crystal. Both of them are three-dimensional networks made up of usual vertices of [SN4] tetrahedron as well as come from hexagonal system. The difference in between them depends on the order of [SiN4] tetrahedral layers. The β & beta; stage is developed by the overlap of hexagonal ring layers made up of six practically completely in proportion [SN4] tetrahedrons in the c-axis direction, while the α & alpha; stage is developed by 2 layers of concrete improvement as well as different non-hexagonal ring layers. α & alpha; stage can dissolve oxygen in the variety of crystal structure, as well as the inner stress of α & alpha; phase is bigger than that of β & beta; phase, so the free power is higher than that of β & beta; phase. From the perspective of thermodynamics, the β & beta; stage is more steady at greater temperature. The & alpha; phase has reduced balance and is very easy to develop. At the temperature of concerning 1500 ℃, the α & alpha; stage undergoes a restoration change as well as is changed into β & beta; stage. This improvement is permanent, and the existence of some process problems as well as high quality is a lot more useful to the improvement from α & alpha; stage to & beta; phase. & alpha;-Si3N4 is created when the temperature βis less than 1350 ℃, and also & beta;-Si3N4 can be directly prepared at a temperature level

greater than 1500 ℃. Silicon Nitride residential or commercial properties The molecular formula of silicon nitride is Si3N4, of which Si accounts for 60.06% and also dint N make up 39.94%. There is a solid covalent bond in between Si and also N (of which the ion bond represent just 30%), so the Si3N4 has high solidity (Morse solidity 9), high melting factor and steady structure.
The Si-N in silicon nitride crystal is mostly covalent bond, as well as the bonding stamina is high, so it has a big flexible modulus (4.7 × & times; 105kg/cm2). The coefficient of thermal expansion is low, however the thermal conductivity is large, so this material is not easy to generate thermal stress and anxiety, so it has excellent thermal shock resistance and great thermal shock resistance. It has toughness, high mechanical stamina at heat as well as small contortion at high temperature. (the heat contortion of silicon nitride ceramic with 2.5 g/cm3 thickness is 0.5% at 1200 × & times; 1000h ℃ and 23 × & times; 7kg/cm2 lots). Not worn down by several metals, because of the development of a silicon dioxide layer, good oxidation resistance as well as good electric insulation.

Silicon nitride has no melting point as well as sublimates and disintegrates at 1900 ℃ under air pressure. The details warmth is 711.8 J/ kg ℃. The microhardness of α & alpha; phase as well as & beta; stage is 10 ~ 16GPa and also 24.5 ~ 32.65 Grade point average respectively. Since it is a solid covalent bond compound, no fluid phase will certainly be formed below its decomposition temperature (regarding 1900 ℃), so silicon nitride products can be sintered with the assistance of oxide ingredients. The oxide products that promote sintering are mostly Y2O3, Al2O3, etc, and also the high enhancement amount can get to 20%. The reaction principle is that the SiO2 oxide movie formed on the surface of silicon nitride bits reacts with the included oxide to create liquid phase and also penetrate at the grain border to make sure high diffusion capacity throughout product migration.

Chemical Security of Silicon Nitride
Si3N4 is a thermodynamically secure substance. Silicon nitride ceramics can be consumed to 1400 ℃ in oxidation ambience and also 1850 ℃ in neutral or reducing ambience. As a matter of fact, the oxidation reaction of Si3N4 takes place above 800C:
Si3N4 +3 O2=3SiO2+N2.

The weight of the example increased as well as a dense silica protective layer was slowly based on the surface, which stopped the additional oxidation of Si3N4. The weight gain was not evident until the temperature was above 1600 ℃. Yet in the humid environment, Si3N4 is very easy to oxidize, as well as the surface starts to oxidize at 200 ℃, which has to do with two times as fast as that in dry air. The oxidation activation energy of Si3N4 powder in water vapor is clearly lower than that in oxygen and also air. The reason is that water vapor can react with Si3N4 with amorphous SiO2 movies:
Si3N4 +6 WATER=3SiO2+NH3.

Silicon nitride is stable to most metal solutions, free from rust as well as seepage, such as Al, Sn, Pb, Bi, Ga, Zn, Cd, Au, Ag and more. However, for Cu option, it is not deteriorated just in vacuum or inert environment; Mg can react weakly with Si3N4; silicon service can wet Si3N4 and also wear down somewhat; transition component service can strongly damp Si3N4 and also kind silicide with Si to rapidly decompose silicon nitride and also escape N2 at the same time. Si3N4 is stable to alloy remedies such as brass, tough aluminum and nickel silver, as well as has good deterioration resistance to cast iron and tool carbon steel, however it is not resistant to Ni-Cr alloy as well as stainless steel.

With the exception of molten NaOH and HF, silicon nitride has great chemical corrosion resistance. But most of the liquified antacid as well as salt can connect with Si3N4 to decay it.

Silicon Nitride utilized in Refractories.
Silicon nitride ceramics are called appealing heat architectural materials because of their superb heat residential properties, such as heat toughness, good wear resistance as well as corrosion resistance. Because of the strong covalent bond and also reduced diffusion coefficient at high temperature, the manufacture of Si3N4 porcelains have to depend on heat, high pressure and sintering agent, and also the expense is too expensive, or else it is challenging to produce high quality silicon nitride products. These restrictions of production expenses and equipment are hard to approve in the metallurgical sector, so the research study in the field of refractories begins relatively late, and also the study is not thorough. Several concepts come from porcelains, however there is not much technology. In the past, silicon nitride typically existed in the type of bonding phase in refractories. Via nitriding as well as shooting of metal Si, aggregates such as diamond or silicon carbide were integrated with great powder, so regarding achieve the objective of incorporating refractory products. Ceramic shed plate is silicon carbide accumulation and component of great powder. Silicon nitride is developed by nitriding metal Si to create silicon nitride. Silicon carbide is integrated to form silicon nitride bound silicon carbide material, which is utilized in blast heating system body and various other parts, to ensure that the efficiency of the product has actually been substantially improved. Compared to the clay adhered silicon carbide shed plate, the high temperature efficiency of the material is very good, which addresses the problem of bulging failure triggered by the oxidation of silicon carbide when the clay adhered silicon carbide dropped plate is made use of.

Silicon nitride Cost
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